Zakaat & Charity

Question:
 
There is a man who is owing my husband R50 000, he has debts that exceed his income, can my husband give him Zakaat? If he repays my husband with the same money after he takes ownership, to free himself from his debt, is that within Sharia regarding Zakaat?
 

Answer:
 
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
As-salāmu 'alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.
 
In principle, if the person's liabilities exceed his assets and income, he qualifies to receive zakat.[1]
If your husband gives his zakat to a debtor without any condition to pay the loan, the zakat will be discharged. The debtor may independently pay his debt to your husband.[2]
However, we advise one should exercise precaution in discharging zakat.
In the enquired situation, it may be difficult to control ones niyyat of independently discharging zakat and not expecting a repayment of the loan with the zakat money.
 
And Allah Ta'āla Knows Best
 
Huzaifah Deedat
Student Darul Iftaa
Lusaka, Zambia
 
Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.
 
 
 
 
[1](9-60) اِنَّمَاالصَّدَقٰتُلِلۡفُقَرَآءِوَالۡمَسٰكِيۡنِوَالۡعٰمِلِيۡنَعَلَيۡهَاوَالۡمُؤَلَّـفَةِقُلُوۡبُهُمۡوَفِىالرِّقَابِوَالۡغٰرِمِيۡنَوَفِىۡسَبِيۡلِاللّٰهِوَابۡنِالسَّبِيۡلِؕ فَرِيۡضَةًمِّنَاللّٰهِؕ
 وَاللّٰهُعَلِيۡمٌحَكِيۡمٌ‏
( كتابالتجنيسوالمزيد،كتابالزكوة،ج 2،ص 343)
رجللهعليانسانمائتادرهم،هليحللهأخذالزكوة؟فهذاعليوجهين: اماانكانمنعليهالدينمعسرا،أوموسرا،ففيالوجهالأول: تكلمالمتأخرون،والمختارأنهيحلالأخذ،لأنيدهزائلةعنماله،فصاربمنزلةابنالسبيل
(كنزالدقائق،كتابالزكوة،باب  المصرف،ج 1،ص 224)
والمديون
(الفقهالنافع،بابمنيجوزدفعالصدقةاليهومنلايجوز،ج1،ص 356)
والغارممنلزمهالدين
(المحيطالبرهاني،كتابالزكوة،ج 3،ص 210-211 )
واماالغارمون: فهمالذينلزمهمالدين،فهممحلالصدقة،وانكانفييأيديهممالاذاكانذلكالماللايزيدعليالدينقدرمائتيدرهمفضاعدا،لأنمقدارالدينمنمالهمستحقبحاجتهالأصلية،فيجعلكالمعدوم
[2]الفتاوىالهندية - ط. دارالفكر (1/ 188)
 فإنكانمديونافدفعإليهمقدارمالوقضىبهدينهلايبقىلهشيءأويبقىدونالمائتينلابأسبه
فتاوىقاضيخان (1/ 132)
فإنكانمديوناًفدفعإليهمقدارمالوقضىبهدينهدونالمائتينلابأسبه
الدرالمختارشرحتنويرالأبصاروجامعالبحار (ص: 128)
وحيلةالجوازأنيعطيمديونهالفقيرزكاتهثميأخذهاعندينه،ولوامتنعالمديونمديدهوأخذهالكونهظفربجنسحقه،فإنمانعهرفعهللقاضي
حاشيةالطحطاويعلىمراقيالفلاحشرحنورالإيضاح (ص: 715)
واعلمأنأداءالدينعنالمالالذيعندهلايصحوالحيلةأنيعطيالمديونزكاتهثميأخذهاعندينه
 Fatawa Mahmoodiyyah Volume 14 Page 202 Maktaba Mahmoodiyyah
Ahsanul Fatawa Volume 4 Page 270 H.M.Saeed
Aaap Ke Masail Volume 3 Page 351 Maktabah Ludhyaanwi
Kifaayatul Mufti Volume 4 Page 266 Darul Ishaat
Mahmoodul Fatawa Volume 2 Page 73 Maktaba Anwar
Fatawa Rahimiyyah Volume 7 Page 174 Darul Ishaat
Fatawa Uthmaniyyah Volume 7 Page 63 Maktaba Maarif
Fatawa Bayyinaat Volume 2 Page 646 Maktaba Bayyinaat

Q: Upon whom is Zakāt compulsory?

A: Zakat is compulsory on every sane, mature Muslim who is owner of Zakātable assets equivalent to the Nisab after a passing of a lunar year.

 

Q: Who is regarded to have nisab?

A: A person who has Zakātable assets equivalent to or more than the Nisāb after deducting liabilities will qualify as a Nisāb holder. 

 

Q: What is Nisāb?

A: The Nisāb is a threshold.  One who possesses Zakātable assets equivalent to the Nisāb amount, will be regarded as a Nisāb holder and will have to check one lunar year later if he still possesses nisab amount to pay Zakāt.

 

Q: What is the value of Nisāb?

A: The Nisāb is the value of 612.36 grams of silver.

Q: How much will I have to pay?

A: One will have to give 2.5% of one’s total net assets.

Q: What if one’s wealth fluctuates during the course of the year?

A: It makes no difference whether one’s wealth increases or decreases during the course of the year.  Only if one becomes insolvent then one’s Nisāb date will expire.

 

Q: Is there Zakāt on one’s house and car?

A: There is no Zakat on personal items which take the form of living necessity.  e.g. a house, clothes, utensils, furniture, car and all household appliances without which life would fall into difficulty etc.

 

Q: Is intention necessary?

A: Intention at the time of giving Zakāt is a pre-requisite for the valid discharge of Zakāt.

 

Q: Can a husband pay Zakāt on behalf of his wife?

A: It is permissible to discharge somebody else’s Zakāt from one’s own wealth on condition one has approval and acknowledgement from the other party.

 

Q: Is Zakāt compulsory on personal gold?

A: Zakāt is compulsory on gold & silver in one’s ownership for whatever reason and whichever form.

 

Q: Is Zakāt binding on cash in a bank account?

A: Zakāt is obligatory on all cash whether in one’s physical possession or in a bank account.

 

Q: Do I have to pay Zakāt on money I have given to a brother as a loan?

A: Zakāt is compulsory on debt receivables arising from forwarding a loan or selling stock on credit.  The total outstanding balance will be added to one’s gross assets.

 

Q: I am in debt; do I deduct my debts when calculating Zakāt?

A: Debts are deductible from your Zakatable total if they are to be repaid in full within the next 12 months.

Debts not repayable at all in the next 12 months are NOT deductible.

 If debts are payable by instalment, then 12 months debt is deductible.

 

Q: Is Zakāt compulsory on social security allowances?

A: Zakāt is payable on the beneficiary of Working Tax Credit, Child Tax Credit, Child benefits and all other forms of social security allowances.

 

Q: I have a business, do I have to pay Zakāt on anything?

A: Zakāt is compulsory on one’s business stock and will be calculated according to the retail price of the goods.  There is no zakat upon the fixed assets in a business.

 

Q: Do I have to pay Zakāt on shares?

A: The value of shares purchased to resell is Zakātable.

 

Q: We manufacture goods.  Do we have to pay Zakāt on those goods?

A:  For businesses involved in manufacturing goods, all finished goods must be valued at their sale price, and all unfinished goods at market price.

 

Q: I have not paid Zakāt for years.  What do I do?

A: If one failed to give Zakāt for previous years, one should estimate how many years were missed and how much one’s nets assets were each year and give Zakāt accordingly. 

 

Q: Who can I give Zakāt to?

A: Zakāt can only be given to either a needy person who does not own in excess of his personal needs anysurplus asset that is equal to the value of Nisāb or a debtor whose liabilities exceed Zakātable and surplus assets.

Zakāt cannot be given to construction projects, rich people, non-Muslims or the descendants of ‘Abbas, Harith, Ja’far and Aqeel Radhiallahu anhum.

One cannot give Zakāt to one’s parents, grandparents, children or spouse.

It is permissible to give Zakāt to one’s needy brother or sister.

 

By: Mufti Faraz al -Mahmudi (Student of Mufti Ebrahim Desai)

Darul Fiqh

Question:

Do we need to pay zakat on weapons kept for hunting, or personal use or for security purposes?

 

Answer:

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa rahmatullāhi wa barakātuh.

In principle, there is no Zakat on weapons kept for personal use (including, hunting or security).[1] However, if made from gold or silver, Zakat will be due according to the Zakat rate of gold and silver.[2]

 

And Allah Ta‘ālā Knows Best

Zameelur Rahman

Student Darul Iftaa
UK

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

www.daruliftaa.net

 



[1] قال صاحب الهداية الإمام الجليل شيخ الإسلام المرغيناني: وليس في دور السكنى وثياب البدن وأثاث المنازل ودواب الركوب وعبيد الخدمة وسلاح الاستعمال زكاة لأنها مشغولة بالحاجة الأصلية وليست بنامية أيضا (الهداية، إدارة القرآن والعلوم الإسلامية، ج.٢ ص.١٦٦)

وقال صاحب العناية الإمام البابرتي: لأن النماء إما خلقي كالذهب والفضة أو بالإعداد للتجارة وليسا بموجودين (من حاشية الهداية للكنوي)

[2] قال: وفي تبر الذهب والفضة وحليهما وأوانيهما الزكاة...لنا أن السبب مال نام ودليل النماء موجود وهو الإعداد للتجارة خلقة والدليل هو المعتبر (الهداية، ج.٢ ص.١٩١) 

Question:

There are a growing number of Shia's around and this question will have to be addressed. Is it permissible to get Zakaah to Shia's? 

 

 

Answer:

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

 

It is not permissible to give Zakāt to present day Ja’farī Shi’ahs[1] whose beliefs are reflected in the following article:

Unbridgeable Divide – Issued by UUCSA

The protracted contrariety between Islam and Shi'ism is but a clear reflection of fundamental differences between the two. The only common denominator between Islam and Shi'ism is the Islamic Kalimah. The rest of Shi'ism has very little in common with mainstream Islam. The unbridgeable divide between the two is entrenched in some of the core fundamentals of this sect, such as:

THE TWELVE IMAAMS

Imaamah is a divine station like Nubuwwat. This implies that Sunnis, who do not believe in Imaamah, are unbelievers. According to their beliefs, Allah had chosen twelve men to succeed Nabi (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam). The twelfth Imaam however disappeared at the age of five. He is believed to be the awaited Mahdi.

 

THE STATUS OF THE IMAAMS

The Imaams possess more knowledge than the Ambiyaa. They are superior to the Ambiyaa and the entire creation. The Imaams can bring the dead back to life. No knowledge of the heavens and the earth is hidden from them.

 

THE INTERPOLATION OF THE NOBLE QUR'AN

The Qur'an is incomplete and distorted in its present form. This tenet had been explicity propounded by the classical scholars of Shi'ism, but frugally denied by the contemporary scholars.

 

VILIFICATION AND APOSTASY OF THE SAHAABA

The Sahaaba were guilty of wilfully distorting and corrupting the Deen of Muhammad (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam). They turned renegade after the demise of Nabi (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) except the immediate household of Nabi (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam).

 

THE PERMISSIBILITY OF MUT'A

VIRTUES OF TAQIYYA

Islam and Shi'ism are two parallel streams of thought that can never converge. They are as distinct from each other, as is Islam to the Ahlul-Kitaab.To ignore these differences is to ignore the stark reality.

The often repeated hallowed call for "Muslim Unity" simply serves as a smokescreen, behind which Shi'a missionaries penetrate Muslim societies. Any attempt to resist this imposition is branded as "divisive". Would it be divisive to protect Islam from a sect that inherently debases the Qur'an, the Ambiyaa, and the Sahaaba? Unity can only be forged on the basis of Aqeedah (belief). To label these differences as 'hair-splitting issues' is to undermine the sanctity of the Qur'an, the Ambiyaa and the Sahaaba unity at the cost of the Qur'an is tantamount to blasphemy.

The constitution of our country guarantees religious freedom. The Shi'as therefore have the right to propagate their beliefs. However, they need to come out of the closet and do so under the banner of Shi'ism.

End of article by UUCSA

 

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Nabeel Valli

Student Darul Iftaa
Lusaka, Zambia

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

www.daruliftaa.net



[1]   الفتاوى الهندية - (2/ 264) [المكتبة الرشيدية]

 الرَّافِضِيُّ إذَا كان يَسُبُّ الشَّيْخَيْنِ وَيَلْعَنُهُمَا وَالْعِيَاذُ بِاَللَّهِ فَهُوَ كَافِرٌ وَإِنْ كان يُفَضِّلُ عَلِيًّا كَرَّمَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى وَجْهَهُ على أبي بَكْرٍ رضي اللَّهُ تَعَالَى عنه لَا يَكُونُ كَافِرًا إلَّا أَنَّهُ مُبْتَدِعٌ وَالْمُعْتَزِلِيُّ مُبْتَدِعٌ إلَّا إذَا قال بِاسْتِحَالَةِ الرُّؤْيَةِ فَحِينَئِذٍ هو كَافِرٌ كَذَا في الْخُلَاصَةِ وَلَوْ قَذَفَ عَائِشَةَ رضي اللَّهُ تَعَالَى عنها بِالزِّنَا كَفَرَ بِاَللَّهِ وَلَوْ قَذَفَ سَائِرَ نِسْوَةِ النبي صلى اللَّهُ عليه وسلم لَا يَكْفُرُ وَيَسْتَحِقُّ اللَّعْنَةَ وَلَوْ قال عُمَرُ وَعُثْمَانُ وَعَلِيٌّ رضي اللَّهُ عَنْهُمْ لم يَكُونُوا أَصْحَابًا لَا يَكْفُرُ وَيَسْتَحِقُّ اللَّعْنَةَ كَذَا في خِزَانَةِ الْفِقْهِ من أَنْكَرَ إمَامَةَ أبي بَكْرٍ الصِّدِّيقِ رضي اللَّهُ عنه فَهُوَ كَافِرٌ وَعَلَى قَوْلِ بَعْضِهِمْ هو مُبْتَدِعٌ وَلَيْسَ بِكَافِرٍ وَالصَّحِيحُ أَنَّهُ كَافِرٌ وَكَذَلِكَ من أَنْكَرَ خِلَافَةَ عُمَرَ رضي اللَّهُ عنه في أَصَحِّ الْأَقْوَالِ كَذَا في الظَّهِيرِيَّةِ وَيَجِبُ إكْفَارُهُمْ بِإِكْفَارِ عُثْمَانَ وَعَلِيٍّ وَطَلْحَةَ وَزُبَيْرٍ وَعَائِشَةَ رضي اللَّهُ تَعَالَى عَنْهُمْ وَيَجِبُ إكْفَارُ الزَّيْدِيَّةِ كُلِّهِمْ في قَوْلِهِمْ انْتِظَارَ نَبِيٍّ من الْعَجَمِ يَنْسَخُ دِينَ نَبِيِّنَا وَسَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ صلى اللَّهُ عليه وسلم كَذَا في الْوَجِيزِ لِلْكَرْدَرِيِّ وَيَجِبُ إكْفَارُ الرَّوَافِضِ في قَوْلِهِمْ بِرَجْعَةِ الْأَمْوَاتِ إلَى الدُّنْيَا وَبِتَنَاسُخِ الْأَرْوَاحِ وَبِانْتِقَالِ رُوحِ الْإِلَهِ إلَى الْأَئِمَّةِ وَبِقَوْلِهِمْ في خُرُوجِ إمَامٍ بَاطِنٍ وَبِتَعْطِيلِهِمْ الْأَمْرَ وَالنَّهْيَ إلَى أَنْ يَخْرُجَ الْإِمَامُ الْبَاطِنُ وَبِقَوْلِهِمْ إنَّ جِبْرِيلَ عليه السَّلَامُ غَلِطَ في الْوَحْيِ إلَى مُحَمَّدٍ صلى اللَّهُ عليه وسلم دُونَ عَلِيِّ بن أبي طَالِبٍ رضي اللَّهُ عنه وَهَؤُلَاءِ الْقَوْمُ خَارِجُونَ عن مِلَّةِ الْإِسْلَامِ وَأَحْكَامُهُمْ أَحْكَامُ الْمُرْتَدِّينَ كَذَا في الظَّهِيرِيَّةِ

 

بدائع الصنائع في ترتيب الشرائع (2/ 49) [العلمية-النسخة القديمة]

وَمِنْهَا أَنْ يَكُونَ مُسْلِمًا فَلَا يَجُوزُ صَرْفُ الزَّكَاةِ إلَى الْكَافِرِ بِلَا خِلَافٍ لِحَدِيثِ مُعَاذٍ - رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ - «خُذْهَا مِنْ أَغْنِيَائِهِمْ وَرَدَّهَا فِي فُقَرَائِهِمْ» أَمْرٌ بِوَضْعِ الزَّكَاةِ فِي فُقَرَاءِ مَنْ يُؤْخَذُ مِنْ أَغْنِيَائِهِمْ وَهُمْ الْمُسْلِمُونَ فَلَا يَجُوزُ وَضْعُهَا فِي غَيْرِهِمْ.

Question:

Recently I  sold house and kept  money in bank. Intention of keeping money in bank to buy house for own living purpose. I have no own house in at the moment. Do I need to pay Zakat for that amount which I kept in bank? 

 

Answer:

 

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

 

It is obligatory to pay Zakaat on the money kept in the bank.[1]

 

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Ismail Desai,

 

Durban, South Africa

Checked and Approved by,

Mufti Ebrahim Desai.

 

 

 



 1 و سببه أي سبب افتراضها ملك نصاب حولي تام (الدر المختار، ج 2، ص 259، ايج ايم سعيد)

مالك لنصاب من نقد و لو تبرا (نور الايضاح، ص 209)

 

 

KHARWASTAN

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